Waveguide fabrication with an ultrafast laser system and the mechanism of index modification have been investigated in Corning Gorilla glass. Type I waveguides were obtained when the pulse duration was in the range of 250 fs to 15 ps. With the increase of pulse energy, single-mode waveguides converted to ring-mode waveguides. The variation tendency of Raman peak at
Experimental setup of the femtosecond laser waveguide writing arrangement indicating the irradiation geometry and the orientation of the microscopic observation.